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Air and climate

Atmospheric emissions

TOTAL NOX (NITROGEN OXIDE) EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRICITY AND THERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION PLANTS (t)

    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 583 442 449
Multi-fuel power stations n.a. 2793 2,434
Waste to energy 385 392 367
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels 638 387 217
Waste to energy 257 342 325
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 61 75 55
Waste to energy 1 <1 2.54
Total   1,925 4,427 3,850

EMISSIONS OF NOX (NITROGEN OXIDE) DURING TRANSITORY STAGES (t)

    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 57 49 61
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 19 17

EMISSIONS OF NOX (NITROGEN OXIDE) FROM OTHER PLANTS/NETWORKS (t)

  2009 2010 2011
Electricity distribution 0 0 0
District heating 0 0 0
Gas distribution* n/av n/av 1
Integrated waste cycle 0 0 0
Water cycle 0 0 0
General services n/av n/av n/av
Total 0 0 1
* Estimate for the Milan networks based on self-consumption of natural gas

NOX EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE ELECTRICITY AND THERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION PLANTS  g/kWh(e+t)

    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 0.10 0.10 0.11
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 1.45 1.51
Waste to energy 0.59 0.68 0.59
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels 0.60 0.39 0.22
Waste to energy 0.25 0.25 0.24
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 0.16 0.16 0.14
TOTAL EMISSIONS OF DUST BY ELECTRICITY AND THERMAL HEAT PRODUCTION PLANTS (t)
    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 0 0 0
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 102 47
Waste to energy 2.8 1.9 2.1
Cogeneration plants  Fossil fuels 5 3 2
Waste to energy 2.8 1.6 1
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 0 0 0
Waste to energy 0 0 0
 Total 10.6 108.5 52.46
EMISSIONS OF DUST DURING TRANSITORY STAGES (t)
    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 0 0 0
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 1.6 1.4
TOTAL EMISSIONS OF DUST BY OTHER PLANTS/NETWORKS
  2009 2010 2011
Electricity distribution 0 0 0
District heat 0 0 0
Gas distribution 0 0 0
Integrated waste cycle 0.3 0.3 0.6
Water cycle 0 0 0
General services 0 0 0
Total 0.3 0.3 0.6
SO2 EMISSION FACTORS OF THE ENERGY PRODUCTION PLANTS - g/kWh (e+t)
    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 0 0 0
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 0.05 0.03
Waste to energy <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Waste to energy <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 0 0 0

TOTAL EMISSIONS OF SO2 (SULPHUR DIOXIDE) BY ELECTRICITY AND THERMAL HEAT PRODUCTION PLANTS (t)

    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 0 0 0
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 524 602
Waste to energy 8 6 7
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels 570 241 236
Waste to energy 6 6 5
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 0 0 0
Waste to energy 0 0 0.1
 Total
579 773 849

EMISSIONS OF SO2 DURING TRANSITORY STAGES (t)

    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 0 0 0
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 14 13

TOTAL EMISSIONS OF SO2 (SULPHUR DIOXIDE) BY OTHER PLANTS/NETWORKS

  2009 2010 2011
Electricity distribution 0 0 0
District heat 0 0 0
Gas distribution 0 0 0
Integrated waste cycle 0 0 0
Water cycle 0 0 0
General services 0 0 0
Total 0 0 0

SO2 EMISSION FACTORS OF THE ENERGY PRODUCTION PLANTS - g/Kwh (e+t)

    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 0 0 0
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 0.27 0.37
Waste to energy <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels 0.62 0.31 0.24
Waste to energy <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 0 0 0
TOTAL EMISSIONS OF CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) BY ELECTRICITY AND THERMAL HEAT PRODUCTION PLANTS (t)
    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants   High yield combined cycle 101 78 90
Multi-fuel power stations n/a 188 138
Waste to energy 74 68 72
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels 62 45 52
Waste to energy 47 94 82
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 5.2 10 11
Thermoelectric plants Waste to energy 1 2 0.1
Total   291 485 445
EMISSIONS OF CO DURING TRANSITORY STAGES (t)
    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle 96 108 401
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 32 30
TOTAL EMISSIONS OF CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) BY OTHER PLANTS/NETWORKS (t)
  2009 2010 2011
Electricity distribution 0 0 0
District heat 0 0 0
Gas distribution n/av n/av n/av
Integrated waste cycle 0 0 0
OTHER POLLUTANTS (t)
  2009 2010 2011
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 1.2 4.3 3.2
Hydrochloric acid (HCI) 29 36 53
Total organic carbon 25 23 31
Dioxins (gram equivalents) 0.03 0.03 0.024
Mercury (kg) 24.8 22.1 19

Direct emissions of greenhouse gases harmful to the ozone layer

TOTAL EMISSIONS OF CO2 BY ELECTRICITY AND THERMAL HEAT PRODUCTION PLANTS* (t) 

    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plantsHigh yield combined cycle2,245,866 1,657,493 1,556,366
Multi-fuel power stations n/av 1,717,946 1,482,598
Waste to energy** 508,300 499,819 509,321
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels 359,967 302,617 312,395
Waste to energy** 339,692 509,896 362,055
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 89,366 103,337 86,645
Process auxiliaries   n/a n/a 178
 Total
3,543,191 4,791,109 4,309,558
* The figures reported are not relevant for the requirements of the 2003/87 Emissions Trading Directive. ** Only includes the CO2 emitted by the combustion of the non-renewable fraction.

TOTAL EMISSIONS OF CO2 FROM OTHER PLANTS/NETWORKS/SERVICES (t)

  2009 2010 2011
Electricity distribution 0 0 0
District heat 0 0 0
Gas distribution* 1,440 1,397 2,872
Integrated waste cycle 2,295 2,595 2,070
Water cycle 758 488 6
General services 912 5,050 5,374
Total 5,406 9,531 10,323
* Estimate for the networks of the Milan area based on self-consumption of natural gas.

CO2 EMISSIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES (t)

  2009 2010 2011
Electricity and heat production 276 355 332
Integrated waste cycle (collection and urban hygiene) 26,391 29,029 30,579
Integrated water service 574 452 474
General services 780 1,192 1,054
Electricity distribution 1,034 971 1,127
District heat 355 93 410
Gas distribution 1029 1,232 1,150
Total 30,440 33,323 35,126
OTHER EMISSIONS: GREENHOUSE SUBSTANCES HARMFUL TO THE OZONE LAYER (kg)
  2009 2010 2011
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 116 122 119
R134a 208 360 1,701
R22 (HCFC22) 211 80 202
R407C 97 29 150
R410A 24 39 13
R427A 0 183 0
R422 0 0 17
Methane (CH4)10 - losses from natural gas distribution networks* 29,100,990 24,475,014 37,287,578
Methane (CH4)11 - from biogas dispersed in the landfill 1,729,839 1,798,034 2,112,659
* Figure calculated as the difference between the amount put into the network and the amount supplied; where the figure for the amount supplied is not available a loss of 2% has been estimated.
CO2 EMISSION FACTORS OF THE ELECTRICITY AND THERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION PLANTS - g/kWh
    2009 2010 2011
Thermoelectric plants High yield combined cycle (natural gas) 387 387 388
 Multi-fuel power stations n/av 892 919
 Waste to energy 828 953 891
Cogeneration plants Fossil fuels 341 306 318
 Waste to energy 325 372 268
Thermal plants Fossil fuels (natural gas) 226 216 220

Indirect emissions of greenhouse gases

INDIRECT EMISSIONS OF GREENHOUSE GASES* - CO2 (t)

  2009 2010 2011
Production of electricity and heat 42,162 59,380 60,661
Integrated waste cycle (collection and urban hygiene) 8,389 9,655 9,237
Integrated water service 41,764 36,304 33,662
General services
n/av 7,579 11,945
Electricity distribution 0 0 0
District heating 3,677 3,783 3,334
Gas distribution
245 66 232
Total 96,237 116,767 119,071
*Emissions of CO2 relating to electricity purchased by and consumed within A2A (Scope 2); the mix of primary energy sources is the national average; the emission factor indicated in the APAT Italian Greenhouse Inventory Report for 2010 (0.559 t/MWh) has been applied.

CO2 allowances granted (emissions trading)

Emissions trading 2009 2010 2011
Allowances granted (no,) 5,160,893 5,743,350 5,407,242

Global impact indicators

GLOBAL IMPACT INDICATORS*
  2009 2010 2011
Global warming potential - GWP (tCO2eq) 4,354,613 5,494,574 5,082,284
Ozone depletion potential - ODP (KgR11eq) 7 3 7
Acidification potential - AP (tSO2eq) 1,927 3,889 3,544
* These indicators consist of the contributions of all the direct pertinent emissions stated in the previous tables. GWP: source IPCC 2001 conversion factor. ODP: source IPCC AR4 conversion factor.